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The environment with its biotic and abiotic components provides basic resources that support production consumption by population and assimilates the residues produced during these activities.
The major environmental issues related to industrial development are over exploitation of natural resources and environmental pollution. Therefore, the protection of environment and natural resources is a must for the proper development of a country.
Industrial wastes are comprised of different types of solid waste, liquid waste, hazardous waste and gaseous waste. The characteristics of industrial waste are different from municipal and commercial wastes. They contain a huge amount of inorganic, organic and organometallic substances that discharge from the individual sources and mix into Human Environment. The liquid form of the industrial waste is termed effluent. Environmental pollution due to different types of industries is one of the vital problem presently facing the India and all over the world.
Textile industries are major sources of Environmental pollution. As the textile industries consume large quantities of water and generates waste water in proportionate order. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. It starts from fiber to finished products. Apart from these main unit operations, a substantial quantity of effluent is generated from the humidification section.
Concentration of pollutants and quantity of effluent from these sections may vary depending upon the scale of production, chemicals used and technologies adopted. Following table may give an idea for raw water requirement in similar type of industries.
Figure: Water Consumption in wet processing of Textile Sl. Product Quantity of water required 1 Denim litres per meter of cloth. Main pollution in textile wastewater comes from dyeing and finishing processes. These processes require the input of a wide range of chemicals and dyestuffs, which generally are organic compounds of complex structure. Water is used as the principal medium to apply dyes and various chemicals for finishes. Because all of them are not contained in the final product, became waste and caused disposal problems.
Major pollutants in textile wastewaters are high suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, heat, color, acidity, and other soluble substances. Substances which need to be removed from textile wastewater are mainly COD, BOD, nitrogen, heavy metals and dyestuffs. The suspended solids content is found by drying and weighing the residue removed by the filtering of the sample.
When this residue is ignited the volatile solids are burned off. Volatile solids are presumed to be organic matter, although some organic matter will not burn and some inorganic salts break down at high temperatures. Wastewater that is light brown in color is less than 6 h old, while a light-to- medium grey color is characteristic of wastewaters that have undergone some degree of decomposition or that have been in the collection system for some time.
The measurement of temperature is important because most wastewater treatment schemes include biological processes that are temperature dependent. All living organisms require varying amounts of some trace elements, such as iron, copper, zinc and cobalt, for proper growth. One of the more common sources of these contaminants is leaking underground storage tanks. Mercury generates a great deal of concern as a heavy-metal pollutant.You have not viewed any products yet.
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Textile Industry PowerPoint Templates & Google Slides Themes
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In the Guide called as A Step Towards Cleaner Production, Susan Barclay and Chris Buckley states that Within any process, there are five main aspects that should be taken into account when considering the implementation of waste minimisation. Different Dyeing recipes exist for Different Denim Products. Each recipe has its own application method in the Textile Mill. There are four Dyeing Machines in the Mill, which includes Preparation, Pre-washing, Dyeing and Back-washing Units in different numbers of their application tanks.
Therefore, there are some differences of applications of different Dyeing recipe. To adjusting the following Dyeing recipe application to the Dyeing machine, Rope-Guide is used in the Mill.
Rerouting is to change the route of the rope-guide in an environmental friendly way, which provides reduction of water consumption. Water saving was determined. The effect of varying dyeing time was observed. The duration of dyeing can be changed between min and min. Preparation, dying, washing and softening processes are defines rope dyeing processes by the facility. Amount of consumed water in rope dyeing process L Washing water consumption new method L Washing water consumption old method L Difference L Reduction in total X,Y,Z,W,U water consumption X 7,0 Y 16,7 Z 3,8 W 5,0 U 4,8 Total 6,2 17 Rerouting the Rope-Guide Reduction in Water Consumption March-April-Mai total water use for rope dying processes Amount of consumed water L March April Mai Total Water consumed in three months for X,Y,Z,W,U type dyings 30 of total consumption can be calculated as follow L 0.
By investigating this effects, it was obviously seen that water saving can be achieved. The effect of duration of dying on water saving was also investigated when there is an additional freshwater feeding tank to the washing tank there is not significant effect of duration of dying on the water saving percentage.
The counter-current washing principle is the most common and efficient one among those techniques. The wastewater is then circulated from the last step to the next preceeding step and so on up the line. The cleanest product is washed with the cleanest water and and the most contaminated product is washed with dirtiest water. The system leads to huge savings in water use. The principle of counter-current washing in textile industry is simple and usually not expensive or difficult to implement.
According to Textile Sector Environmental Report in opposition of dying of synthetic raw materials, counter-current washing applications are not common in cotton dying. The cotton fiber pollution is the main reason for that.
For the last washing tank, from which water is sent to the previous, the cotton fiber pollution is minimum. Therefore using filter is a solution and does not create a clogging problem. But for the washing tanks before the last tank, the fiber pollution is a problem, because the cotton lets its fiber in a suspended situation in these tanks at most. For this reason, it is thought that the filter clogging would be a big problem if direct counter-current washing were applied.
Two methods of washing was applied. As well as the Literatural Review, after some site visits to the facility the processes were detected and the possible changes especially related to the water consuming processes were determined. Possible water use reduction techniques were detected.Percent 7. Thank you. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read Free For 30 Days.
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Textile Industry PPT. Uploaded by Mukesh Patel. Document Information click to expand document information Description: Textile Industry Presantation. Date uploaded Aug 27, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Textile Industry Presantation. Flag for inappropriate content. Download Now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Related Searches Textile industry Textile.
Subhadip Bagchi. Shahriar Kabir. Textile Learner.Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based in the conversion of three types of fibre into yarn, then fabric, then textiles.
These are then fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products.
There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results. Processing of cotton Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the yearthe global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries There are five stages Cultivating and Harvesting Preparatory Processes Spinning Weaving Finishing. Cultivating and harvesting Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity.
Planting is from September to mid November and the crop is harvested between March and May. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers, that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant, attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres. Preparatory processes- preparation of yarn Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in large, pound bales.
When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter. The bale is broken open using a machine with large spikes. It is called an Opener. In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker, or similar machines.
A picker looks similar to the carding machine and the cotton gin, but is slightly different. The cotton is fed into the machine and gets beaten with a beater bar, to loosen it up. It is fed through various rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter. Spinning- yarn manufacture The spinning machines take the roving, thins it and twists it, creating yarn which it winds onto a bobbin. In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through some rollers, which are feeding at several different speeds.
This thins the roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine.
The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, and is rolled onto a cop as the carriage returns. Mule spinning produces a finer thread than the less skilled ring spinning. Weaving-fabric manufacture The weaving process uses a loom.
The lengthway threads are known as the warp, and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle, that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom.
TEXTILE MANUFACTURING PROCESS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. Knitting by machine is done in two different ways; warp and weft. Weft knitting is similar in method to hand knitting with stitches all connected to each other horizontally.
Various weft machines can be configured to produce textiles from a single spool of yarn or multiple spools depending on the size of the machine cylinder where the needles are bedded.
In a warp knit there are many pieces of yarn and there are vertical chains, zigzagged together by crossing the yarn. Finishing- processing of textiles The grey cloth,woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential.You have not viewed any products yet. Start browsing our template library and here will be stored your history of viewed products.
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